Jim Bullis

Jim Bullis - Head of Pre-Sales & Solutions

September 2022 - min to read

What is Financial Planning & Analysis (FP&A)? A Guide for 2022

What is Financial Planning & Analysis (FP&A)? A Guide for 2022

FP&A should guide all significant decisions a company makes.

Why? Because FP&A (financial planning and analysis) is the story the numbers tell. 

In other words, FP&A knows how to optimize capital and resources to create the best business outcomes. And in this guide, you'll learn all you need to know about FP&A.

So if you want to learn why FP&A is mission-critical (and how you can use it to grow your company), keep reading. 


  1. What is financial planning and analysis (FP&A)?
  2. What does FP&A do? Roles and responsibilities of FP&A analysts
  3. FP&A history: from bean counter to strategic partner
  4. Tech used in FP&A
  5. Key FP&A challenges
  6. FP&A careers
  7. Conclusion

What is financial planning and analysis (FP&A)?

Financial Planning and Analysis (FP&A) is the set of strategic activities (planning, budgeting, forecasting, and analysis) that enable a company's ongoing financial health and ability to grow. 

When done right, FP&A is the ultimate business historian and soothsayer: telling the story of the past and helping to write the story of the future.

Writing the story of the future

Finance has a hand in everything. 

From headcount planning to deciding on the budget, FP&A dramatically influences a company's culture, growth, trajectory, and ultimate fate.

FP&A must have a solid grasp of the company's short- and long-term financial needs. From routine activities—like financial close and consolidation, cash flow reporting, and financial reporting—to strategic initiatives—including financial insights on planning, budgeting, scenario planning, financial forecasting, and financial modeling—FP&A covers a lot of ground. 

While the entire Finance branch is responsible for tasks like record keeping, accounting, payroll, compliance and control, risk management, investor relations, and more, FP&A focuses on the future: determining a company's financial health.

FP&A typically reports to the Chief Financial Officer (CFO), who is ultimately responsible for managing the financial health of an organization. 

That said, the actual value of the FP&A team comes when they provide insights for executives and the broader company.

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FP&A definition

FP&A is the set of strategic activities (planning, budgeting, forecasting, and analysis) that enable a company's ongoing financial health and ability to grow. FP&A enhances the finance department's ability to manage performance by integrating corporate strategy and decision-making.

FP&A process

The FP&A process is a constant flow of data collection and analysis. There are four major parts: 

1. Data collection, consolidation, and verification

The first step is data collection, consolidation, and verification. It consists of collecting all the financial data from each internal department and every external source. 

From there, FP&A needs to consolidate the data so it's organized and easy to work with. 

Verification is when the FP&A team checks the data for errors. This information must be accurate because every step following relies on this data.

2. Planning and forecasting

After gathering data, the second step is to create financial forecasts that answer questions about the business's trajectory: 

  • How will we look next year if nothing changes? 
  • How will we look next year if we change X? 
  • What about in 5 years? 

And so on. 

Analysts use methods like predictive planning, driver-based planning, and multi-scenario planning. Regardless of the technique, analysts must collaborate with every department when planning—silos are not helpful.

Senior management can then use these forecasts from the FP&A team to develop a strategic plan with high-level targets like NDR.

3. Budgeting

Now that the FP&A team has a clear view of their data, it's up to them to estimate the expenses needed to execute the corporate plan based on the revenue from the strategic plan. This is called the budget

FP&A teams develop expense budgets for each department, leading to an overall master budget for the entire company.

4. Performance monitoring and analytics

FP&A isn't a "set it and forget" department. 

FP&A teams are constantly analyzing data and monitoring performance throughout the company. 

Beyond analysis, these teams build reports and visualizations so every department feels involved and informed in company performance.

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What does a financial planning & analysis analyst do? Roles & responsibilities of FP&A analysts

While the CFO typically oversees high-level FP&A strategy, the department would be nothing without the team members digging into numbers daily. 

Enter: the FP&A analyst. The FP&A analyst's primary focus is analyzing and influencing the company's financial health.

The typical FP&A analyst position can span various  roles and responsibilities, including: 

1. Data collection

FP&A analysts are responsible for collecting data internally and externally.

Then they consolidate departmental data and market research to benchmark performance against industry standards.

But like Florian from Novo noted, getting data from internal budget owners can be troublesome if you don't have the right tools. 

(More on that later.) 

The next step? Data hygiene. FP&A analysts must be confident that their numbers are correct.

Being confident in their numbers means they must check, double-check, and check again before they begin anything else.

...If you think there must be a better way, there is.

(Let's put a pin in this for now.)

2. Creating and preparing detailed reports

Data holds little value without thoughtful analysis. 

That's why FP&A analysts not only collect data, but aggregate, map, and analyze it to determine value, make budgeting decisions, form KPIs, and more. 

After performing this analysis, FP&A creates dashboards and reports so internal stakeholders can understand and monitor their performance. 

And, of course, reports are never a one-and-done task. It's up to the FP&A analyst to regularly update these reports as new information rolls in.

One example is the monthly close, especially at companies without a dedicated accounting department. At the end of each month, finance needs to "close the books," which means they review, record, and reconcile their financial accounts.

But the monthly close is notorious for taking a long time—in some cases, it can take the entire month.

3. Managing financial databases

All that data has to be kept and organized somewhere. 

And there's more: 

As more data comes into the team, it's more likely that mistakes will happen or that some of the data will get corrupted. 

So the FP&A team has another important job: manage the financial database.

But this means more than doing their due diligence to check and double-check that their numbers are accurate.

It also means maintaining the financial database. Typically, the financial database lives on a tool (like Cube) that integrates with the spreadsheet where they do their work.

Make no mistake: the cost of bad data hygiene is high. This is an integral part of the job.

4. Maximizing the effectiveness of operations

Until now, we've talked about the historical, backward-looking function of FP&A.

And many FP&A teams indeed find themselves saddled with the vital work of creating reports, managing data, and the monthly close. 

(We'll call this "encumbered" FP&A.)

But "unencumbered" FP&A teams outsource much of that work (to a dedicated accounting department) or use software to automate it. This frees up their time for what FP&A does best: maximizing the effectiveness of the business.

They do this by looking at various key performance indicators and metrics. These numbers tell the FP&A team valuable information about the performance of specific endeavors and how to improve them.

One of the most accessible metrics is the SaaS magic number

The magic number (as it's known) measures the effectiveness of the sales and marketing team. 

When it's over a certain threshold, it's a sign to pour more money into your campaigns. When it's under that threshold, it's time to revisit strategy and conversion rates.

This is just one example of how FP&A can dramatically change a company's fortunes.

5. Create scenarios, forecast, and model possible futures

This is the core of FP&A's job. 

But first, let's back up a little. Who does FP&A report to?

FP&A reports to the people who drive company strategy—the CEO, leadership team, and Board.

While these people care about the company's current performance, they're also invested in the future of the company. What does it look like?

Moreover, they often have specific questions. 

For example: 

  • If we hired four more account executives, how much more revenue could we expect to generate by the end of Q2? 
  • How does that affect our ability or hire more customer support associates if those new hires underperform by 10%? 
  • What about by 15%?
  • If we need to generate 20% more pipeline than our current rate, do we also need to hire someone new in marketing?

To answer these questions, FP&A creates scenarios and forecasts to model the future.

And to do that, everything else has to work—data collection, reporting, data hygiene, and performance optimization.

But you might be wondering…

…If FP&A is so critical, why is the data collection and analysis process so inefficient? 

Let's take a look at how we got here. 

FP&A history: from back-office bean counter to strategic partner

By now, you know what FP&A is and how it's mission-critical for any business. 

But if FP&A is so essential, why are so many teams still using slow, error-prone, and manual methods?

Put another way: how did FP&A get to this point? Let's take a look.

Looking backward: the image problem 

Finance has never had the best reputation within a company. Especially around budgeting season—from chasing down data from department leads to not granting budget requests, it's easy to see how finance gets a bad rap.

In fact, our own Co-Founder and CEO says that when she was a CFO, she hated playing "bad cop." Chasing down data isn't fun for anybody.

And neither is the prep work: manually extracting, cleaning, and mapping that data. 

But in a world where nearly 90% of all companies still manage their forward-looking planning, analysis, and reporting in standalone spreadsheets, most analyst time gets spent on manual tasks such as searching for and consolidating data. 

…and then >90% of spreadsheets still contain errors or stale data.

Something had to change for industries to continue to scale at the speed necessary for survival and success.

COVID-19: "The great re-planning"

First, let's be clear: COVID-19 was not the start of FP&A's transition from bean counter to strategic partner. But it did accelerate it.

In the past 20 years, finance started taking a more active, strategic role in many companies. But when the response to the COVID-19 pandemic changed how many companies operated overnight, the burden fell to FP&A.

During Spring 2020, we saw companies: 

  • Lay off large numbers of employees
  • Shutter entirely
  • Supply chain issues cause inventory shortages, especially among consumer goods
  • Lose profits, especially in the luxury sector

Nobody likes to lay off employees—the 14.7% unemployment rate we saw in April 2020 was, among other things, an indication of how many companies weren't prepared for a sudden economic downturn.

And that's when many companies woke up to the idea of FP&A as a strategic partner. 

Christina Ross, our Co-Founder and CEO, calls this "the great re-planning." And as many companies woke up to the idea of FP&A as a strategic partner, many CFOs and strategic finance leaders realized that Excel alone was not enough.

"Doing that in Excel alone was grueling," said Kristina Delvalle, a Cube customer. "We had to create all these different scenarios to find the best solution for everyone." 

As a result of "the great re-planning" through the impacts of COVID, more and more businesses have woken up to the importance of a strategic finance team—and that for a team deeply connected to the company, speed in planning is critical. 

Having a clear picture of the current state of the business and its projections became essential for survival. And that meant the planning and analysis process had to be faster, more robust, and more accurate. 

Looking forward: FP&A as a strategic partner 

While everything is trying to return to pre-COVID life, FP&A now has a new normal.

Companies understand the value of FP&A as a strategic partner.

Companies face an uphill battle without the ability to efficiently forecast, budget, and plan. FP&A not only helps companies make the plan, but it also helps them adjust the plan. It is both a predictive and a resilient function.

And in the ever-changing financial climate, organizations need to have a Plan B and a Plan C, D, E, and F. These plans need to come from FP&A.

Technologies used in financial planning and analysis

Finance teams at SMBs typically combo the spreadsheet (usually Excel) with an accounting tool like QuickBooks. And this works, to a point. But the tools need to improve as the organization grows and as organizational complexity increases.

That said, there's nothing wrong with Excel or Google Sheets. These tools are the backbone of FP&A because they're easy to use, robust, and reliable.

Research shows that 81% of the people who rip and replace their spreadsheets revert to them.

Caution: the mistaken approach

But spreadsheets have a few limitations that become challenging as data gets more complex. For example, many small teams use Excel as a database. But Excel was never designed to be a database, so it fails to do the job after a point.

The solution?

Many teams fall into a trap: replace Excel.

The logic goes something like this: Excel used to do all our heavy lifting. But now it's becoming more of a hassle. Things are breaking. It's not working anymore.

Therefore, we need a new tool to replace Excel.

But this thinking is flawed and a common trap teams fall into.

The problem isn't that Excel can't scale. It's that it was never designed for this use case.

Instead of replacing Excel—which was already working in every other respect—add a database. Let Excel do what it does best and outsource what it doesn't.

Part of Cube started with this insight. Excel is easy. Everybody knows how to use it: why reinvent the wheel? 

Most finance leaders Christina Ross spoke with when she was building Cube knew that they needed to augment Excel with some external tool. They'd even started their search, but many paused or gave up altogether. 


Because they didn't want to deal with the never-ending implementations or learning curves of what existed on the market.

Put another way, legacy FP&A software is universally reviled.

That's why she built Cube.

...but that's a story for another day.

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The FP&A stack

Most FP&A solutions fall into three categories: the source system, the database, and the FP&A tool.

The source system is where the raw data lives. These might include: 

  • Accounting/ERPs (Sage Intacct, NetSuite, QuickBooks, Xero, PeopleSoft, etc.)
  • Human Resources/Payroll (ADP, ChartHop, Greenhouse, Lever, Justworks, etc.)
  • Billing & Operations (Chargebee, Zuora, Ordway, etc.)
  • Sales & Marketing CRMs (Salesforce, HubSpot, etc.)
  • BI tools (MongoDB, Power BI, Tableau, Microsoft Azure, etc.)

Then there's the database, which organizes and ensures all this data is hygienic. Sometimes the database isn't a discrete tool. Some tools have extra functionality on top of being a database.

Cube is one of these tools, and they work like this: 

  • Read in and unite data from your source systems
  • Organize, consolidate, and clean said data (like a database)
  • Bidirectionally interface with the spreadsheet through a native integration

(Learn more about how Cube works.

Finally, there's the actual FP&A tool for analysis and forecasting. The best-known FP&A tool is Microsoft Excel. Many teams also use Google Sheets to make collaborating across the organization more fluid.

But there are many tools that either augment or replace the spreadsheet altogether. Those are the tools FP&A teams today use: 

(See more in our list of top FP&A software tools.

Key features of FP&A software

Not all FP&A software is created equal. What you choose ultimately depends on your needs as a business and how you and your team prefer to work, but here are the essential features that you should benchmark any FP&A solution against: 

  • Data consolidation
  • Multi-scenario analysis
  • Spreadsheet integrations
  • Customizable dashboards
  • Multi-currency support
  • User-based controls
  • Shareable templates
  • Audit rails 
  • Centralized formulas and KPIs 

(Learn more about how to pick the best FP&A solution for you.)

What to look for in FP&A Software

Those seeking an FP&A solution should keep four critical things in mind as they evaluate potential providers:

  1. Fast and easy deployment. How long does this tool take to implement? Cube takes an average of 2 weeks. Other tools, like Anaplan and Adaptive, are notorious for taking months and requiring external consultants.
  2. Ease of use. Likewise, you want an FP&A tool that's easy to use. Does the tool work with Excel and Google Sheets (the software everybody already knows how to use)? Is the interface intuitive, or will you need to spend months learning how to use the tool and teaching new team members how to use it?
  3. Scale and flexibility. Will this solution grow with you? Does it work for companies of all sizes, or is it limited to SMBs or monolithic enterprise organizations? Likewise, how many use cases does it support? Can you use this tool in new and creative ways, or is it a one-trick pony?
  4. Customer support. You'll interact with customer success no matter which tool you choose. Does this company have a track record of providing stellar customer success? 

Recommended FP&A solutions include:

  1. Cube is the first spreadsheet-native FP&A platform that functions as a single source of truth for your source systems and lets you quickly push and pull data into Excel or Google Sheets. In other words, Cube automates all the manual, error-prone work so that you can focus on the analysis and forecasting that bring tangible results to your company.

  2. Google Sheets offers a user-friendly interface that is widely used, not just in FP&A or finance. It also works on all computers and has some great features that Excel does not offer. While most finance pros prefer Excel, Google Sheets wins out on making numbers more accessible, easier to understand, and transparent.

  3. Excel needs no introduction. This classic go-to software for FP&A and strategic finance professionals is still widely used today. Moreover, Excel is so beloved that most attempts to replace it with another tool fail outright.

  4. Workday Adaptive Planning offers strong capabilities outside of Finance and FP&A, which makes Adaptive Planning a good choice for large enterprises seeking a transformational, company-wide FP&A solution. However, its lengthy implementation timeline and "replace spreadsheets" philosophy means it's not a fit for everybody. 

  5. Anaplan works well for larger enterprise customers with a strong IT team ready to lead an enterprise-scale transformation initiative. Like Adaptive, it has a long implementation cycle and replaces Excel.

  6. Planful is ideal for larger companies with big FP&A teams that want to expand their scope of influence beyond finance.

  7. Vena is ideal for companies that need the fixed process and planning guidance of pre-built FP&A solutions or have the resources to uniquely customize those pre-built solutions for their own needs.

Key FP&A challenges

Data gathering, aggregating, and warehousing

Raw data exists in source systems. But it's not very useful to FP&A there. 

To do something with those numbers, FP&A must aggregate them into a single source of truth.

But this presents a couple of problems: 

  • What happens if those numbers don't match?
  • How do they get to the database? Could there be some human error?
  • Can the data get corrupted inside the database?

Likewise, raw data also exists within each arm of the company. To create the budget for each year, FP&A has to get those numbers from department leaders.

Data gets segmented by time—usually month—and FP&A has extra work for expenses or numbers that cross those timelines. 

To have consistent internal logic and accurately report on the state of the business, all of this data needs to be accounted for, reconciled, and housed.

After all, a single error can snowball into a wrong prediction or recommendation. 

Accurate and unbiased reporting 

Likewise, FP&A needs to create accurate reports. 

Sometimes this is as simple as setting up a dashboard.

But other times, it requires custom calculations and digging into unusual perspectives.

As with everything else in FP&A, the threat of human error is here too.

But there's also more nuance—are we creating the correct report? What is this being used for? What are the conclusions we want people to draw from this report?

FP&A also has to understand the biases of its stakeholders (what do they desire to see?) and design reports that not only accurately reflect reality but that also are not biased or misleading.


The budget determines almost everything. 

Which teams grow (and how), where resources get put (or not), and which objectives a company chases (and which they ignore). 

The annual budgeting process is no small feat: it can take months for some companies. During this time, FP&A has the classic "if you serve too many masters" problem—department leaders want one thing, the Board wants another, and the data says something else entirely. How to make everybody happy?

Well, you don't. You make trade-offs. Often, the full picture emerges after everybody has made their case.

Strategic budgeting unifies the business's direction. It accounts for different scenarios and projects a desirable end state for the compass. It uses finance to set priorities and guardrails.

What's in the budget is just as important as what's not in the budget.

Financial forecasting

Forecasting estimates the tangible results realized by deploying the available budget. 

For example, if Sales has a budget for ten sellers and expects each to win $10,000 in new business next month, the forecast for new revenue generated by Sales would be $100,000. 

As another example, suppose customer success has been trying a few initiatives to reduce churn and increase NDR. FP&A can forecast to measure the impact of each initiative—and even advise which one to focus on.

Likewise, when teams are not on track—even if the budget is being followed—FP&A can forecast how far away from the desired end state the company will be by the end of the fiscal year. Once they know that, they can make recommendations to correct what's happening today and get teams back on track. 

FP&A careers

So you want to break into FP&A. 

Or maybe you're curious about pay, career advancement, or the different kinds of roles on the FP&A team.

And that's precisely what you'll learn in this section.

Financial planning & analysis job opportunities

As more companies understand the mission-critical nature of FP&A, job opportunities grow. 

FP&A job titles might include: 

  • FP&A analyst
  • Strategic finance associate
  • Director of finance
  • VP of finance
  • VP of strategy
  • CFO

Likewise, if you want to break into FP&A, a background in finance, accounting, mathematics, and even programming is helpful. 

But FP&A also needs to understand how businesses work. So previous experience in marketing, operations, and human resources can be valuable and inform a unique perspective that the rest of the team might lack.

One of the best—or worst—things about breaking into FP&A is that there are very few degree programs that teach it. Most people learn FP&A on the job. 

While this makes it accessible, it's also hard to control the quality of whom you're learning from.

FP&A average salaries 

According to Indeed, the average salary for an FP&A analyst in New York in the Summer of 2022 is $98,311. 

As you move from junior analyst to senior analyst to manager to director to VP, you should expect to be compensated accordingly.

One of the best benefits of a career in FP&A is the potential for continued growth as the field grows. 

Is FP&A a promising career?

FP&A is a great career because it's a mission-critical role for any business. 

If you enjoy playing with numbers and thinking about strategy, FP&A might be an excellent fit for you. 

Likewise, FP&A careers have excellent job security—as the economy and markets become more volatile, a skilled FP&A professional looks like a more attractive hire. 


Now you have a super high-level understanding of FP&A.

You know why it's important, what it does, what tools it uses, and even how to break into the field. 

So now we want to hear from you. What surprised you? Share this post on LinkedIn and let's keep the conversation going.

And if you're interested in some FP&A software to help you improve your processes and save time, you should take a look at Cube. Request a free demo today.

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